The aim of a linguistic validation is to produce a target language version that is conceptually equivalent to the source instrument and allows data pooling and/or comparison across countries.

Conceptual Definition

Aim : To clarify the concepts investigated by each item of the original instrument to ensure they are reflected appropriately in the target languages.

Forward Translation

Aim : To obtain a consensus target language version.

Backward Translation

Aims : To obtain a translation into English of the target language version, to assess and control its quality.